Categories Health

Beta lactam vs Non Beta lactam

Antibiotics are antibiotics that are used to treat bacterial infections. Antibiotics come in a wide range of types. These drugs changed the face of medicine. Some medicines kill germs quickly, while others prevent bacteria from growing and reproducing. Bacteria, on the other hand, have developed resistance to antibiotics as a result of their misuse and widespread availability. Antibiotics are divided into two types: beta lactam antibiotics and non-beta lactam antibiotics.

What is Beta Lactam, and how does it work?

Antibiotics containing a beta lactam ring in their structure are known as beta lactam antibiotics. A nitrogen molecule is linked to the beta carbon in them. Penicillin derivatives, cephalosporins, monobactams, carbapenems, and other broad-spectrum antibiotics are examples. Antibiotics block the production of bacterial cell walls, killing bacterial pathogens in the process.

In comparison to other antibiotics, they are widely used. Bacteria, on the other hand, have evolved antibiotic resistance to these beta lactam antibiotics. Beta lactamase, an enzyme, has given them multi-resistance to beta lactam antibiotics. To address this issue, doctors give beta lactamase inhibitors in conjunction with beta lactam antibiotics. Antibiotics that are beta lactams are more effective against Gram-positive bacteria. Beta lactam antibiotics, on the other hand, can be used to treat gram-negative bacteria.

Is non-beta lactam is a kind of non-beta lactam?

Antibiotics that do not include the beta lactam ring in their molecular structure are known as non-beta lactam antibiotics. Antibiotics that aren’t beta lactams are less effective. Their use has resulted in unsatisfactory therapeutic results. Scientists believe this is due to the non-beta lactam group’s greater risk of improper empiric treatment. Vancomycin is a non-beta-lactamase antibiotic with a complicated molecular structure. Non beta lactam antibiotics include Fosfomycin and bacitracin, among others. Daptomycin, a lipopeptide, is another non-beta lactam antibiotic. Chloramphenicol is a bacteriostatic antibiotic that inhibits the growth of bacteria.

Difference between Beta Lactam and Non beta Lactam:

Incision and drainage are the preferred treatment for purulent skin and soft tissue infections, however many infections cannot be drained. In the age of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, empiric treatments for these infections remain ill-defined.

The clinical failure rates of oral beta-lactam and non-beta-lactam therapies were compared in a multicenter retrospective cohort study of outpatients treated for cellulitis. Purulent infection requiring surgery and drainage, severe skin and soft tissue infection, persistent ulceration, and IV antibiotics were among the exclusion criteria. The failure rates were compared using logistic regression, which took into account both failure-related variables and a propensity score for beta-lactam therapy.

Results: A total of 861 patients satisfied the inclusion criteria and were divided into two groups based on their treatment: beta-lactam therapy (n = 631) and non-beta-lactam therapy (n = 230). For beta-lactam and non-beta-lactam treatment, failure rates were 14.7 percent and 17.0 percent, respectively (odds ratio [OR] 0.85, 95 percent confidence interval [CI], 0.56-1.31). Age (P =.02), acute symptom intensity (P =.03), animal bites (P =.03), Carlson score > 3 (P =.02), and histamine-2 receptor antagonist usage (P =.09) were all linked to failure. After adjusting for variables linked with failure, beta-lactam therapy’s relative effectiveness was higher, but the difference was statistically insignificant (adjusted OR 0.81, 95 percent CI, 0.53-1.24).


In the treatment of uncomplicated cellulitis, there was no significant difference in clinical failure between beta-lactam and non-beta-lactam antibiotics. With non-beta-lactam treatment, there was a higher rate of discontinuation due to side effects. The main distinction between beta lactam and non-beta lactam antibiotics is that beta lactam antibiotics have a beta lactam ring in their molecular structure, whereas non beta lactam antibiotics do not.

Categories Health

Vitamin D and It’s needs!!

Calcium absorption, immunological function, bone, muscle, and heart health are all aided by vitamin D. It is found in foods and generated by your body when your skin is exposed to sunlight. However, few foods are high in vitamin D, with the exception of fatty fish.

After being exposed to sunshine, your body produces vitamin D on its own. Overexposure to the sun, on the other hand, can cause skin ageing and cancer. Many people try to supplement their vitamin D intake with other foods. Egg yolks, saltwater seafood, and liver are all high in vitamin D.

What exactly is vitamin D?

Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that plays an important role in a variety of bodily activities. Vitamin D comes in two forms in the food and supplements: 

  • Some mushrooms contain vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol).
  • Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) is a fat-soluble vitamin that is found in fatty fish, fish liver oil, and egg yolks.
  • D3 is the most potent of the two, increasing vitamin D levels by nearly twice as much as D2 (6Trusted Source, 7Trusted Source).
  • When your skin is mostly exposed to UV rays from the sun, significant levels of vitamin D can be produced. Any vitamin D that you don’t need right away is stored in your body fat for later use.

The vitamin D receptors are found in almost every cell in your body. It is necessary for a variety of functions, including bone health and immune system function, as well as cancer prevention.

When it comes to vitamin D, how much should you take?

Many variables influence how much vitamin D you require. These are some of them:

  • age
  • season
  • exposure to the sun
  • clothing

This is only a sample of the elements that go into determining how much vitamin D a person needs. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) advises consuming 400–800 IU (10–20 micrograms) on a regular basis. However, other studies suggest that your daily consumption should be greater if you aren’t exposed to the sun or have darker skin tones. Blood levels over 20 ng/ml or 30 ng/ml are deemed “adequate,” depending on who you ask. According to one study including healthy people, daily consumption of 1,120–1,680 IU was required to maintain adequate blood levels. Individuals who were vitamin D deficient required 5,000 IU to attain blood levels over 30 ng/ml in the same research. According to studies, in postmenopausal women with vitamin D levels below 20 ng/ml, consuming 800–2,000 IU boosted blood levels over 20 ng/ml.

To attain 30 ng/ml, however, larger dosages were required).

In addition, those who are overweight or obese may require more vitamin D. In most cases, a daily vitamin D intake of 1,000–4,000 IU, or 25–100 micrograms, should be sufficient to maintain optimum blood levels. The safe, top-level, according to the National Institutes of Health, is 4,000 IU. Make sure you don’t take any more than that without first visiting a doctor.

What are the ideal vitamin D levels in the blood?

Vitamin D levels in the blood are measured by measuring 25(OH)D in the blood, which is the body’s storage form of vitamin D. However, there is significant disagreement over what constitutes appropriate blood levels. The Institute of Medicine refers to IOM and the Nordic Nutrition Council provide recommendations based on the blood levels shown below.

  • 25(OH)D higher than 20 ng/ml (50 nmol/l) is adequate.
  • 25(OH)D less than 20 ng/ml (50 nmol/l) is inadequate.
  • 25(OH)D levels less than 12 ng/ml (25 nmol/l) are considered inadequate.

According to these organizations, blood levels of over 20 ng/ml fulfill the vitamin D needs of 97.5 percent of the population. Higher blood levels were not shown to be related to any extra health advantages by an IOM committee. However, some experts, such as the Endocrine Society, advise aiming for blood levels closer to 30 ng/ml (75 nmol/l).

What are the most common vitamin D sources?

Vitamin D is found in:

  • direct sunlight
  • vitamin D-enriched foods
  • supplements

Because few foods contain large quantities of vitamin D, overall vitamin D consumption is low. Fatty fish, such as salmon, and even the fish liver oils, are both good sources of vitamin D. Small quantities of vitamin D can also be found in egg yolks, and milk and cereals in some countries are fortified with it. Supplements, on the other hand, are readily available and safe.

Vitamin D Benefits 

Bones in good shape

  • Vitamin D is important in the management of calcium and the preservation of phosphorus levels in the blood Trusted Source. These elements are essential for sustaining bone health.
  • Vitamin D is required for the intestines to activate and absorb calcium and recover calcium that the kidneys would otherwise excrete.
  • Vitamin D deficiency in youngsters can induce rickets, which causes the bones to weaken, resulting in a severely bowlegged look. 
  • In adults, vitamin D insufficiency causes osteocalcin or weakening of the bones. Osteocalcin causes muscle weakness and low bone density.

Flu risk is reduced:

A look back at 2018, some investigations have indicated that vitamin D has a protective impact against the influenza virus, according to current data.

However, the researchers looked at other studies that found vitamin D had no effect on flu and flu risk. To establish the preventive effect of vitamin D against the flu, more study is needed.

Infants in good health

  • Even in youngsters, vitamin D deficiency has been linked to elevated blood pressure. A 2018 study discovered a probable link between low vitamin D levels and stiffness in children’s artery walls.
  • According to the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology (AAAAI), evidence suggests a link between inadequate vitamin D exposure and an increased risk of allergy sensitization; according to the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology (AAAAI).
  • Children who live closer to the equator, for example, had lower rates of hospitalization for allergies and fewer prescriptions for epinephrine autoinjectors. They are also less likely to be allergic to peanuts.

Pregnancy in good health

  • A look ahead to 2019, According to Trusted Source, pregnant women who are vitamin D deficient are more likely to develop preeclampsia and give birth prematurely.
  • According to doctors, Vitamin D deficiency has also been linked to gestational diabetes and bacterial vaginosis in pregnant women.
  • It’s also worth noting that high vitamin D levels during pregnancy have been linked to an increased risk of food allergy in children during the first two years of life, according to a 2013 study Trusted Source.


Vitamin D is necessary for bone health as well as a variety of other health benefits. Many people suffer from deficiency, which can have serious health effects. If you’re thinking about increasing your vitamin D intake, examine the given reasons and see your doctor. 

Categories Health

Why drink more water?

Water is a magical resource that has made the existence of life possible on earth. A normal water molecule is made up of two atoms of hydrogen bonded to one atom of oxygen. Due to its bond structures, water has been considered as a universal solvent, meaning it can dissolve almost any solute in it. Water can exist in 3 different forms-solid, liquid and gas. Depending upon the temperature, changes in forms can be seen.

Water can be found in water bodies such as ponds, rivers, lakes, seas, oceans, glaciers etc. If there’s water then you’re sure to find life there. Human beings can consume only portable water which is free from hard minerals, salts and other pollutants. Water processed under treatment plants can be consumed, as they are made suitable for drinking purposes. The amount of water required by the human body depends upon factors such as age, physical workout, disease conditions, environmental factors etc.

According to The National Academies of Sciences and Engineering and Medicine states that an average male should have a minimum of 3.7 litre and an average female should have 2.7 Litre of water in a day. That doesn’t mean you cannot drink more than the suggested values. You can drink more water as it will benefit you to the utmost.

Water comprises of three-fourth of your body weight. Imagine what will happen to your body If all the water is squeezed out of it. Sounds horrible! Isn’t it?

You need water for quenching your thirst but there are more reasons for this why you should drink ample water every day.

1) Boosts energy

Water is an essential requirement for performing metabolic processes in our bodies. Drinking more and more water can activate all these processes and can raise energy levels within the body.

2) Regulates the body temperature

During summers or physical performances, our body is subjected to a lot of elevation in temperature. In such a situation chances are of raising body temperature above the normal range.

Water can regulate internal body temperature through sweat formation. Sweat in human bodies can prevent overheating during high temperatures. So it is very important to drink more water not just to quench your thirst but for several other reasons.

3) Enables digestion

Digestion is the breakdown process of complex food. With more intake of water, the breakdown of various complex molecules of food particles becomes easier and faster. So, drink enough water for effective digestion of food.

4) Maintains blood pressure

Scarcity of water in human bodies can cause thickening of the blood. In such a condition increase in the blood pressure can occur. But with water, no such situation arises.

5) Nourishes skin

Sufficient water consumption will keep your skin hydrated and may facilitate collagen production. However, the type of skin is decided by various other factors such as age, genetics, environment etc. But with more intake of water, we can certainly prevent shrinking of skin and provide moisturization.

6) Promotes weight loss

Drinking water enables a sense of fullness within our bodies. Due to which we often avoid eating unnecessary food items and this can cause a significant decrease in body weight.

7) Flushes body waste

Various metabolic processes in our bodies can produce waste formation. These wastes can be excreted out in various forms such as sweat, urine, faeces etc. Water enables the excretion of waste products in our bodies and helps kidneys from getting damaged. Accumulation of wastes within kidneys can cause kidney stones.

8) Increases cognitive functions

Water keeps your focus on the right track and helps to boost your alertness, consciousness and memory. So, water is essential for overall mental functioning.

9) Maximizes physical performances

Hydration can determine the strength, power, vigour and endurance of a human body. Physical workouts need energy and energy comes from the breakdown of calories within the body. When this process occurs rapidly and for a long duration of time, it can lead to perspiration. For maintaining an adequate balance of electrolytes frequent consumption of water is required to ensure an effective body workout.

10) Supplies minerals and nutrients

Water comprises of various minerals and nutrients dissolved in it. Our bodies require minerals for performing several functions such as for maintaining fluid balance, muscle contraction and relaxation, maintaining healthy bones and teeth, blood clotting, blood pressure regulation, acid-base balance etc.

11) Improves mood

Scarcity of water can affect your mood. Lack of water in human bodies is responsible for causing confusion, anxiety and fatigue.

So far you must have realized how important water is. Every cell, tissue, organ, organ system and body needs water to function appropriately. You don’t just have to rely on drinking water to work properly but consuming fruits, vegetables etc can also indirectly supply you water. Consuming various other fluids can also work for some people but for the majority of the population, water is a must for full-fledged functioning of their respective bodies. So maintaining a healthy balance in terms of food and fluids is very important.

While you finish reading this article, make sure that you have a glass of water for yourself.

Thanks for reading!

~Priyanka Padhi

Categories Health

Uses of Rabeprazole

A plate of crispy- spicy potato wedges tossed with peri-peri seasoning and a large chicken stuffed burger with lots of molten cheese served with a giant mug of aerated drink or how about a large sized pan fried barbeque chicken pizza seasoned with mixed herbs and extra cheese along with mayonnaise and tomato ketchup?

Sounds like an extravagant junk meal right?

But with such treats there are high chances of developing fortuitous stomach abnormalities. These ailments can be dislodged by consuming a class of drugs called ‘Proton Pump Inhibitors.’ Example-Rabeprazole can come in rescue.

Rabeprazole also recognized as ‘Aciphex’ (brand name) is categorically an Oral dosage form. It trickles the levels of acid secreted by the stomach and provides relief. Rabeprazole is found in tablet or capsule forms which are delayed release oral dosage forms. Thus, it enshrines for curing several gastrointestinal conditions. Regular body check-ups one can monitor the functioning of his or her body and can decrease the chances of getting affected by severe diseases. Therefore, seek a doctor whenever you find something wrong going on in your body.


Rabeprazole is used to treat various conditions such as:

1)Treatment of GERD

‘Gastroesophageal reflux disease’ or GERD is a medical condition in which the acid produced in the stomach irritates the Esophageal passage (food pipe). You must be wondering how does the reflux or the flow back takes place?

During your regular digestive process the Lower Esophageal Sphincter (LES) opens up to allow the movement of food particles from the Esophagus whereas in case of GERD the Lower Esophageal Sphincter becomes a bit weak and relaxes. Due to such an activity the content present inside flows up through the Esophagus.

This regurgitation can be treated by consuming Rabeprazole . Rabeprazole will suppress the exuberance of acid secretion by the stomach which will lead to the betterment of the body.

2)Promotes relief from heartburn

Sometimes consumption of your favorite spicy food, alcoholic beverages, overeating can lead to burning sensation in the upper-thoracic and mid- thoracic regions. This condition is called as Heartburn.

For curing heartburn a tablet or capsule of Rabeprazole can promote relief to your Thoracic cavity. It can decrease the amount of acids in the stomach and effectively provide relief from burning sensation, sour taste in the mouth and frequent burping.

3)Cures Duodenal Ulcers

“Health is the greatest possession” ~Lao Tzu

A healthy body and mind are responsible for greater productivity. But due to various reasons people these days are likely to develop a lot of diseases. Duodenal ulcer is a condition where the thick mucosal layer inside the Duodenum of small intestine gets severely affected due to bacterial infections, medications and others leading to the sores. These sores or ulcers can lead to irritation and erosion in the stomach and small intestine.

In order to treat such a condition Rabeprazole can be used in combination with two antibiotics. Examples can be Amoxicillin and Clarithromycin. Using ‘Rabeprazole’ with combination therapy can ramp up the goodness within the body.

4)Treatment of Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome

Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome is a medical condition where tumors start developing inside the stomach leading hyperacid secretion and peptic ulcers. It occurs due to a neuroendocrine tumor called Gastrinoma. Gastrinoma produces a hormone called ‘Gastrin’ which is the main causative reason of Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome.

Rabeprazole is used as a reliable medication in the treatment of Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome. Being a Proton Pump inhibitor, it inhibits the excessive acid production. Thus, providing relief during Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome.

Rabeprazole might show some mild side-effects like headache, abdominal pain, sore throat, constipation, diarrhea etc. These side effects get vanished within few days of consumption. If they do not wipe out and worsen the overall health condition of the consumer then do not hesitate for seeking professional aid.

Next time, when you grab a large sized burger with one or more spiced up patties of pan fried chicken and potatoes combined with your favorite mug of aerated drink make sure that you have Rabeprazole with you for sustaining the aftermath. Anyway it’s never too late to rely on a bowl of fresh colorful veggies and fruits.

Thanks for reading!

~Priyanka Padhi