Categories Health

Beta lactam vs Non Beta lactam

Antibiotics are antibiotics that are used to treat bacterial infections. Antibiotics come in a wide range of types. These drugs changed the face of medicine. Some medicines kill germs quickly, while others prevent bacteria from growing and reproducing. Bacteria, on the other hand, have developed resistance to antibiotics as a result of their misuse and widespread availability. Antibiotics are divided into two types: beta lactam antibiotics and non-beta lactam antibiotics.

What is Beta Lactam, and how does it work?

Antibiotics containing a beta lactam ring in their structure are known as beta lactam antibiotics. A nitrogen molecule is linked to the beta carbon in them. Penicillin derivatives, cephalosporins, monobactams, carbapenems, and other broad-spectrum antibiotics are examples. Antibiotics block the production of bacterial cell walls, killing bacterial pathogens in the process.

In comparison to other antibiotics, they are widely used. Bacteria, on the other hand, have evolved antibiotic resistance to these beta lactam antibiotics. Beta lactamase, an enzyme, has given them multi-resistance to beta lactam antibiotics. To address this issue, doctors give beta lactamase inhibitors in conjunction with beta lactam antibiotics. Antibiotics that are beta lactams are more effective against Gram-positive bacteria. Beta lactam antibiotics, on the other hand, can be used to treat gram-negative bacteria.

Is non-beta lactam is a kind of non-beta lactam?

Antibiotics that do not include the beta lactam ring in their molecular structure are known as non-beta lactam antibiotics. Antibiotics that aren’t beta lactams are less effective. Their use has resulted in unsatisfactory therapeutic results. Scientists believe this is due to the non-beta lactam group’s greater risk of improper empiric treatment. Vancomycin is a non-beta-lactamase antibiotic with a complicated molecular structure. Non beta lactam antibiotics include Fosfomycin and bacitracin, among others. Daptomycin, a lipopeptide, is another non-beta lactam antibiotic. Chloramphenicol is a bacteriostatic antibiotic that inhibits the growth of bacteria.

Difference between Beta Lactam and Non beta Lactam:

Incision and drainage are the preferred treatment for purulent skin and soft tissue infections, however many infections cannot be drained. In the age of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, empiric treatments for these infections remain ill-defined.

The clinical failure rates of oral beta-lactam and non-beta-lactam therapies were compared in a multicenter retrospective cohort study of outpatients treated for cellulitis. Purulent infection requiring surgery and drainage, severe skin and soft tissue infection, persistent ulceration, and IV antibiotics were among the exclusion criteria. The failure rates were compared using logistic regression, which took into account both failure-related variables and a propensity score for beta-lactam therapy.

Results: A total of 861 patients satisfied the inclusion criteria and were divided into two groups based on their treatment: beta-lactam therapy (n = 631) and non-beta-lactam therapy (n = 230). For beta-lactam and non-beta-lactam treatment, failure rates were 14.7 percent and 17.0 percent, respectively (odds ratio [OR] 0.85, 95 percent confidence interval [CI], 0.56-1.31). Age (P =.02), acute symptom intensity (P =.03), animal bites (P =.03), Carlson score > 3 (P =.02), and histamine-2 receptor antagonist usage (P =.09) were all linked to failure. After adjusting for variables linked with failure, beta-lactam therapy’s relative effectiveness was higher, but the difference was statistically insignificant (adjusted OR 0.81, 95 percent CI, 0.53-1.24).


In the treatment of uncomplicated cellulitis, there was no significant difference in clinical failure between beta-lactam and non-beta-lactam antibiotics. With non-beta-lactam treatment, there was a higher rate of discontinuation due to side effects. The main distinction between beta lactam and non-beta lactam antibiotics is that beta lactam antibiotics have a beta lactam ring in their molecular structure, whereas non beta lactam antibiotics do not.

Categories Health

Vitamin D and It’s needs!!

Calcium absorption, immunological function, bone, muscle, and heart health are all aided by vitamin D. It is found in foods and generated by your body when your skin is exposed to sunlight. However, few foods are high in vitamin D, with the exception of fatty fish.

After being exposed to sunshine, your body produces vitamin D on its own. Overexposure to the sun, on the other hand, can cause skin ageing and cancer. Many people try to supplement their vitamin D intake with other foods. Egg yolks, saltwater seafood, and liver are all high in vitamin D.

What exactly is vitamin D?

Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that plays an important role in a variety of bodily activities. Vitamin D comes in two forms in the food and supplements: 

  • Some mushrooms contain vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol).
  • Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) is a fat-soluble vitamin that is found in fatty fish, fish liver oil, and egg yolks.
  • D3 is the most potent of the two, increasing vitamin D levels by nearly twice as much as D2 (6Trusted Source, 7Trusted Source).
  • When your skin is mostly exposed to UV rays from the sun, significant levels of vitamin D can be produced. Any vitamin D that you don’t need right away is stored in your body fat for later use.

The vitamin D receptors are found in almost every cell in your body. It is necessary for a variety of functions, including bone health and immune system function, as well as cancer prevention.

When it comes to vitamin D, how much should you take?

Many variables influence how much vitamin D you require. These are some of them:

  • age
  • season
  • exposure to the sun
  • clothing

This is only a sample of the elements that go into determining how much vitamin D a person needs. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) advises consuming 400–800 IU (10–20 micrograms) on a regular basis. However, other studies suggest that your daily consumption should be greater if you aren’t exposed to the sun or have darker skin tones. Blood levels over 20 ng/ml or 30 ng/ml are deemed “adequate,” depending on who you ask. According to one study including healthy people, daily consumption of 1,120–1,680 IU was required to maintain adequate blood levels. Individuals who were vitamin D deficient required 5,000 IU to attain blood levels over 30 ng/ml in the same research. According to studies, in postmenopausal women with vitamin D levels below 20 ng/ml, consuming 800–2,000 IU boosted blood levels over 20 ng/ml.

To attain 30 ng/ml, however, larger dosages were required).

In addition, those who are overweight or obese may require more vitamin D. In most cases, a daily vitamin D intake of 1,000–4,000 IU, or 25–100 micrograms, should be sufficient to maintain optimum blood levels. The safe, top-level, according to the National Institutes of Health, is 4,000 IU. Make sure you don’t take any more than that without first visiting a doctor.

What are the ideal vitamin D levels in the blood?

Vitamin D levels in the blood are measured by measuring 25(OH)D in the blood, which is the body’s storage form of vitamin D. However, there is significant disagreement over what constitutes appropriate blood levels. The Institute of Medicine refers to IOM and the Nordic Nutrition Council provide recommendations based on the blood levels shown below.

  • 25(OH)D higher than 20 ng/ml (50 nmol/l) is adequate.
  • 25(OH)D less than 20 ng/ml (50 nmol/l) is inadequate.
  • 25(OH)D levels less than 12 ng/ml (25 nmol/l) are considered inadequate.

According to these organizations, blood levels of over 20 ng/ml fulfill the vitamin D needs of 97.5 percent of the population. Higher blood levels were not shown to be related to any extra health advantages by an IOM committee. However, some experts, such as the Endocrine Society, advise aiming for blood levels closer to 30 ng/ml (75 nmol/l).

What are the most common vitamin D sources?

Vitamin D is found in:

  • direct sunlight
  • vitamin D-enriched foods
  • supplements

Because few foods contain large quantities of vitamin D, overall vitamin D consumption is low. Fatty fish, such as salmon, and even the fish liver oils, are both good sources of vitamin D. Small quantities of vitamin D can also be found in egg yolks, and milk and cereals in some countries are fortified with it. Supplements, on the other hand, are readily available and safe.

Vitamin D Benefits 

Bones in good shape

  • Vitamin D is important in the management of calcium and the preservation of phosphorus levels in the blood Trusted Source. These elements are essential for sustaining bone health.
  • Vitamin D is required for the intestines to activate and absorb calcium and recover calcium that the kidneys would otherwise excrete.
  • Vitamin D deficiency in youngsters can induce rickets, which causes the bones to weaken, resulting in a severely bowlegged look. 
  • In adults, vitamin D insufficiency causes osteocalcin or weakening of the bones. Osteocalcin causes muscle weakness and low bone density.

Flu risk is reduced:

A look back at 2018, some investigations have indicated that vitamin D has a protective impact against the influenza virus, according to current data.

However, the researchers looked at other studies that found vitamin D had no effect on flu and flu risk. To establish the preventive effect of vitamin D against the flu, more study is needed.

Infants in good health

  • Even in youngsters, vitamin D deficiency has been linked to elevated blood pressure. A 2018 study discovered a probable link between low vitamin D levels and stiffness in children’s artery walls.
  • According to the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology (AAAAI), evidence suggests a link between inadequate vitamin D exposure and an increased risk of allergy sensitization; according to the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology (AAAAI).
  • Children who live closer to the equator, for example, had lower rates of hospitalization for allergies and fewer prescriptions for epinephrine autoinjectors. They are also less likely to be allergic to peanuts.

Pregnancy in good health

  • A look ahead to 2019, According to Trusted Source, pregnant women who are vitamin D deficient are more likely to develop preeclampsia and give birth prematurely.
  • According to doctors, Vitamin D deficiency has also been linked to gestational diabetes and bacterial vaginosis in pregnant women.
  • It’s also worth noting that high vitamin D levels during pregnancy have been linked to an increased risk of food allergy in children during the first two years of life, according to a 2013 study Trusted Source.


Vitamin D is necessary for bone health as well as a variety of other health benefits. Many people suffer from deficiency, which can have serious health effects. If you’re thinking about increasing your vitamin D intake, examine the given reasons and see your doctor.